This is the world of The Golden Compass/Northern Lights (and the Lyra's Oxford "Globetrotter" gazetteer, now available here) by Philip Pullman: this work whose richness smote me so hard that it's shaped my own writing. The trilogy starts in a parallel world that actually closely resembles Kingsley Amis's The Alteration--a planet mostly ruled by a Catho-Calvinist church drawn from the worst fever dreams of Jack Chick and Dan Brown (though I'd really describe it as the "anti-da Vinci Code": it really expresses a authentic Renaissance spirit). The world of HDM has two distinct "feels" to it, a Baroque and a Victorian, and both of them were eras of exploration. Technologically there's zeppelins, rifles, polar expeditions, photograms, steamship tours, and science-fictionalized tech like "atomcraft" (so this is partially the IRL 1910 map); and then there's a constant stream of signs and wonders worthy of the now-suppressed world of Willem Blaeu, Guillaume Le Testu, Lopo Homem, Athanasius Kircher, John White, Richard Hakluyt, William Dampier, Walter Raleigh, and even Marco Polo and Mandeville (or Lord Darcy for that matter) so most of the map is based on those of IRL 1700 and 1789.
The Great Powers that carved up our whole world 1860-1911 are far, far weaker: all the cultures seem on a more equal footing. There's enough Skrælings to have some be fanatical agents of the Holy Office, enough Welsh to affect Brytain's spelling, enough zombis for the Oblation Board to buy a whole army of 'em from Benin, and neo-Puritans who're not at all squeamish at manufacturing African clockwork bugs that use demons as both power and AI. Muscovy is described as facing constant invasion even though it's reached the Black Sea (Odessa's listed in Lyra's Oxford, and Muscovy lacks any "South Tartars" on the Dnieper): there are tigers (and the wild Lithuanians who worship them) still running around right at the doorsteps of Warsaw and St. Petersburg. China, Indonesia/Java, the Netherlands, the Ottoman Empire, and Spain are also weaker, so I gave them protectorates more than vast colonies. Brytain has to share the seas with French, Portuguese, Danish, Austral, and New Danish fleets of comparable strength. With less/different techs (and without the leadfoot of global-level inequality on the demographic gas pedal) this world would only have maybe 4 billion on it.
As in the Baroque vision of the world, there are more species and unconquered cultures than have been left to our world after 1960. Pullman's universe has a teeming multiplicity of metaphysics and ontologies: there's Dust-resonant a-bombs (even if the theorists have been hypocritcally sentenced by Canon-Law drumheads), Italian alchemists and conjurers, Christian and Gnostic Christian angelology (Gustav Davidson's Dictionary of Angels is excerpted on the Random House site), zombification, Siberian shamanism, Ugric nature-witchcraft, and a mechanical dark-matter memory theater whose emblems read you as much as you read them. These forces, respectively, are shown to hop dimensions, chase you across Europe in a mechanical bug and again across Russia in a Calabi-Yau Merkabah, raise a Nigerian-Cossack combined force of walking dead, control lightning and birds to destroy three blimps in one night, let one prophesy and talk with trees and weasels for a thousand years, and know anything anywhere anytime. It all sounds like a world where Atlantis not only never sank, but started training special ops for the Swiss Guard! Again, this isn't Pullman throwing in the kitchen sink (well, not until the end of Spyglass), but instead a good picture of the various creatures, peoples, magics, sciences, and marvels discovered or thought possible by the Baroque (Crowley's Ægypt, CS Lewis's Discarded Image, Eco, Borges).
HDM is, alas, written out of a north-Oxonian fear of plotting Papists: his Renaissance spirit is a flawed one from 1860 written by Calvinists. His main source, The Alteration, was ironically written to warn us about precisely the cosy, rumpled Oxbridge lib-Lab middle-school teachers that'd vote in Harold Wilson and make Britain the 16th Union Republic. And pizza: Amis hated anything Mediterranean. But despite wallowing in the Draper-White myth of a Church quashing joy, science, curiosity, and sylvan teen hanky-panky--basically bent on burning any book so much as mentioning women or herbs, what Pullman ultimately fears is heartless automatism--all existence turning into deterministic "interlocking machines, blind and empty of thought, feeling, life." Now, I've heard people blame Catholicism for creationism, Lincoln's assassination, both world wars, Stalin and Hitler, lack of Mars colonies, and the bubonic plague, but never abolishing free will and the ability to think itself! Even for a Magisterium based on the hottest fires of 15th-17th-century reformism and the most galling Victorian hypocrisy, with every bad thing done (or, for the most part, not done) by Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, or Nestorian alike piled together into one institution, that goal seems a little bit ... much. In fact, Church and state combined are unable to suppress even the riparian Traveller-Sea Beggar hybrids in a supremely industrialized, modernized, and conformist Brytain, even giving them a special, chartered zone in the Fens. This world's mightiest military (Muscovy's) has heathen Tartars, shamans, nature-worshiping literal Witches, and violent, Authorityless talking bear sellclaws underfoot; in London epicenes with same-sex dæmons walk in broad daylight and the regime can't keep its own kids from being sold as odalisques and dancing boys in the Mediterranean. The Magisterium in fact never burned any witches and the very suggestion floors the Laplanders with its unthinkability. There don't seem to have been any European wars, and napalm is unheard-of in New Denmark. Our world may give nuns the right to leave the cloister over eating marzipan and kissing Italians (though not vice-versa)--but all we got OTL is McWorld battling the hyper-Salafists (and the CIA playing both sides), the I Ching, those Pius X creeps, and hot-potato games with autonomous zones in Russia's "Near Abroad."
Beringland, Hudson Bay, Lavrador and the New Found Land*
New France (cities: Du Lhut, Mt.-Royal, Outaouais [Ottawa], Port Iroquois [Hamilton], Nouvelle-Tarente [Toronto], Nouveau-Port-Royal [Halifax], Rivière-Rouge [Winnipeg], Québec, Sault Ste.-Marie) are up in OTL Canada; New France goes as far as Manitoba, which was the site of two Franco-Skræling Métis Risings IRL: New Taranto has plenty of Italians.
New Denmark is a very confederated republic that united in 1761 and won Michigan, Illinois, and the trans-Mississippi from France in the Texan Wars of 1836-40 [Amis]. It's an economic powerhouse rivaling all Europe and Muscovy. It provides significant religious freedom, with Anabaptists, Hussites, Lollards, and Waldensians attracted to New England and the Great Plains [Amis]. They've invented the "moving picture," where you draw on cellulose acetate and re-project it, though Lyra's never seen one. [Alternatively New Denmark proper stops at the Mississippi, New France continues down to NOLA, and the West Coast's Mexican or Brytish.]
States and cities:
Carlotania (Minn., Wis.): Charlotte [Milwaukee], St. Paul
Dakota (plus Mont.): Rapid City has developed TTL so it's not French
La Florida: St. Augustine
Illinoia: Chicagua, New Cahokia [Cairo]
Louisianne: New Orléans
Mékinac (Mich.): Pontchartrain [Detroit]
Miami (Ind.): Miami [Indianapolis]
Mississippi (plus half of Ala.)
Missouri (plus Kans., Neb.): Des Moines, Kansai City, St. Louis
Monmouth (Md.--named for the duke, whose historical role would be quite changed without Protestantism): Grand Harbor [Washington], Monmouth [Baltimore]
New England: Hartford, New Ipswich [Boston--the Puritans are still East Angles]
New Denmark (N.J.--rather than New Sweden)
New Jutland (N.C.--TTL Danes likened the Outer Banks to Vendsyssel): Raleigh
New Zeeland (N.Y.): New Hague [New York, instead of New Amsterdam]
Ohio: Carlemanni [Cincinnati--named for the elite organization based on the Emperor TTL rather than OTL's farmer-general], Cleves [Cleveland], Pittsylvania [Pittsburgh]
Ouachitanie (Ark., Okla.)
Southfields (Ga., S.C.): Charles Town, New Atlantis [Savannah]
Sylvania (Penn.); cities: Concordia [Philadelphia]
Tenesy: Rosetta [Memphis, keeping with the IRL Egyptian theme]
Victoria (Va.--rather than being named for Gloriana): Richmond
Texas is confirmed as a country (and fits the feel of the TL), so I created a New Albion* with the cities of Anyan [Victoria], Drakia [Vancouver--ha friggin' ha], Newport [Portland], Our Lady, St. Francisport, St. James, St. Joseph, Seattuh. I'm guessing TTL wanted to block New Denmark from being a continental power after it conquered Louisiana so I guess Geneva, Madrid, and London encouraged American buffer states.
Méjico, or Nueva España, includes Castile's Caribbean isles; its New Danish border is mostly the Gila, Pecos, and Nueces Rivers. Cities: Acapulco, Comayagua, Guatemala, Holy Savior, La Habana, León, Managua, Mérida, Mexico, Monterrey, Panama, Portobelo, St. Joseph, St. Dominic, St. Louis, Vera Cruz. [I'm guessing Castile stayed Habsburg 1700, so the Bourbons didn't annoy the colonies and autonomist reforms could be introduced as-needed--and there's no Tupac Amaru II to provide a precedent against Madrid. The 19th c.'s economy is probably still going--local forces handling the revolts caused by commercialization and industrialization: the Castilian Empire has in fact been "Americanized," Chile legally as much part of Castile as Andalusia. The Royal Family probably zeppelins to Chapultepec Palace every few years.]
The Antilles are called Antilia ITL and retain their Taíno names (since Europeans are weaker ITL): Alliagana (Montserrat), Aloi (St. Eustatius), Alubera (Tobago), Caloucaera (Guadeloupe), Camaogne (Grenada), Carriacou, Hairoun (St. Vincent), Ichiruganeym (Barbados), Iwanalao (St. Lucia), Jouanacaera (Martinique), Kairi (Trinidad), Lucayan (the Bahamas), Lyamwiga (St. Kitts), Mallihana (Anguilla), Oualiche (St. Martin), Oualie (Nevis), Ouanalao (St. Bartholomew), Ouatoukoubouli (Dominica), Touloukaéra (Marie-Galante), Wadadli (Antigua), Wayamoni (Barbuda), and Xaymaca. There's Brytish Honduras and the Coast of Mosquitoes on the mainland--these are culturally part of the Caribbean rather than Central America, as in IRL.
Veneçuela* is a colony of Catalonia, which has a protectorate over the Aboriginal kingdoms of Bacatá* to the southwest and Roraima (or Orinoquia*) to the south: these kingdoms also play the Hollanders, Brytish, and Castilians off against one another.
The Empire of Brasil is sometimes called High Brasil, in contrast with Hollands Guiana* (with its particularly nauseating loup-garou) and formerly-Hollands northern Brazil. Cities: Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Holy Savior, João Pessoa, New Bethlehem, Pôrto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, St. Paul, Santos. Brasilian and Antilian slaves were probably as brutalized as in IRL, and New Danish ones treated more like in IRL Spanish America (FWIW), with a non-binary racial system. I made Peru an always-independent--though Christian--empire that managed to avoid being overthrown by poxy Italians: Inca (or whatever) society is as fascinating to these Iberians as OTL's. It's wildly rich from selling silver to China, Castile, and Germany, with even Brytain and France synchronizing their currency to the real/Thaler, giving us a worldwide silver Dollar. Cities: Ariqipa, Chiklayu, Kallaw, Kitu, Putuqsi, Qusqu, Tiwanaku, Wankawillka, Wankayuq, Wayakil (provinces from here). Chiquitos* and Paraguay* are Reductions under this Church's direct rule, so they're big, whip-happy maté plantations. La Plata* is settled by Castilians, Brytish, and Italians, as in OTL (cities: Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Corrientes, Holy Faith, La Plata, Mendoza, Rosario, St. John, St. James of the Estuary, Tucumán). Terra do Fogo, or Magallanica is an island at the southern tip of Patagonia.
Lyra's Oxford has Van Tieren's Land separate from Baffin Island and it's in "atlas order" (since Ortelius they go from Iceland to Tierra del Fuego) after America and Patagonia, so I guess it's the Antarctic Peninsula or, from the movie map, another Arctic island. France, Brytain, and Denmark have the Isles of St Maclovius, Sandwich Land, and the Desolation Islands* around the South Atlantic.
The Kingdom of Brytain comprises the Kingdoms of of Eireland, England, Mann, and Scotland and the Princedom of Wales; Arthur Tudor produces an heir TTL [Amis]. Scandinavia of course comprises Norroway, Sveden, and independent Lapland (again we have kingdoms' names left untranslated; Trollesund is apparently supposed to be Bodø, though Tromsø's bigger). Denmark includes the Duchies of Holstein, Scania*, and Schleswig; in the Atlantic it rules Estotiland, the Færøerne, Fireland, Frisland (a super-Rockall), and Grœnland. Holland, or the United Low Countries, has acquired more of Friesland (still with the famous Franeker planetarium); I left Utrecht a prince-bishopric, though the commercial oligarchs electing the Stadhouder may not have liked so "feudal" an inclusion.
Constitutional-monarchical half-Orléanist France [with that name in Once Upon a Time in the North] and less-constitutional Habsburg Castile and the messianic Empire of Portugal, are self-explanatory. The Catalonian Foral Republic lost Aragón, Valencia, and the Balears to Castile in 1580, and regained them in 1815; Navarre's fuero expanded into the Basque Republic.
The German Electorates or Holy Roman Empire's emperors are elected by Austria, Bavaria, Bohemia, Brandenburg-Prussia, Lower Burgundy (Belgium, under a restored Valois-Burgundy dynasty), Hannover, Mecklenburg-Hither Pomerania, and Saxony, the Prince-Archbishoprics of Bremen, Cologne, Trier, Liège, Salzburg, and Mainz, and the Electoral Palatinate (with the Rosicrucian Hortus Palatinus and Fate-Books still drawing visitors). In between these petty powers are a mess comprising the Abbacy of Fulda, the Bishoprics of Bamberg, Münster, Hildesheim, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Salzburg, and Würzburg, the Counties of Cleve, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Kassel, Hohenzollern, Jülich-Berg, Nassau-Saarbrücken, and Zweibrücken, and the Duchies of Alsace, Baden, Oldenburg, Thuringia, and Württemberg. [I'd say that 16th-c. France and Germany saw the upper nobility turned against the Radical Reformation; the now-monarchomachic Church tightened controls on Scriptural interpretation, purged rural pagan influence, enforced celibacy, and persecuted Anabaptists. We have Rudolf II, but he's succeeded by a reactionary Frederick.]
Italy has the Duchies of Ferrara-Modena*, Mantua*, Milan*, Parma*, Piacenza*, and Savoy*, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany*, the Republics of Genoa*, Lucca*, and Venice (still resembling Pullman's source, Brian Aldiss's Malacia Tapestry--perhaps even with Ancestral hunts and astrological "fortune bonds" being gamed by precogs), and the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily.
The States of the Church comprise the old Papal States, Venaissin, and the canton of Vaud; Rome has the judiciary Vatican Council and the once-dominant College of Bishops, whereas the 12-member Consistorial Court of Discipline commands the Swiss Guard and rules almost all of the Christian world. The States are protected by Florence (ever since Savonarola stormed Rome and was acclaimed Pope), Muscovy, Savoy, Germany, and the Swiss League*.
The East is rounded out with the Kingdoms of Poland* and Lithuania*, the Hungarian Empire (including a Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia) protecting the Princedoms of Moldavia*, Transylvania, Wallachia*, and the Székely Magyar Republic. It's the source of coveted Tokay wine (seriously, even the cheap stuff will floor you). Lyra's Oxford has "the Baltic States" so I have Livonia* or the Terra Mariana there.
Svalbard is the kingdom of the ice-going panserbjørne.
Bridge to the Stars has an official map here. They expand with the flowering of plants and contract with migrations; a fight between Leutara and Kämäinen was ended "when a cloud of midges drifted east over the coal-moss beds." We know Witches cover Siberia go out and I'd say they go out through the Pripet, or even to the Terme River.
Lake Enara, Serafina Pekkala
Lake Keitele, Sara Leino (lilac)
Lake Ladoga, Paula Pyhäjäro
Lake Lubana, Ruta Skadi (pea-green)
Miekojärvi, Katya Sirkka (forest green); blood feud against Tishozero
"Nania"? Julia Ojalami (fuchsia)
Tishozero, Reina Miti; blood feud against Mickojärvi
Umbozero, Tanja Leutara (violet)
Lake Visha, Juta Kämäinen
Muscovy's many "Tartars" (Alans, Balkars, Cheremiss, Circassians, Dargins, Finns, Iazones, Kalmyks, Karachays, Karelians, Kumyks, Laks, Letts, Lezgians, Mordvins, Nakhs, Nogais, Tabasarans, and Tavastians) ensure that the Empire is under tenuous control and often looming invasion, giving Moscow the strongest and best-equipped army in the world, especially the elite Imperial Guard. It's basically divided into the same guberniya as the IRL Empire: the duchies (Belozersk, the Don, Kiev, Nizhny Novgorod, Smolensk, Tver, Vladimir-Suzdal, Yaroslavl) and princedoms (Astrakhan, Azerbaijan, Crimea, Kharkov, Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov, Ryazan, Tiflis, and Yelizavetpol) are in a lighter color: these are autonomous semi-hereditary realms (the Emperor meddles in which son or nephew in the dynasty the local Assembly of Nobles "chooses"). There's doukhobors and skoptsy a-plenty, given the Magisterium's anti-wiener policies [frankly having Will meet a vegetarian nudist castrato would be much more shocking than having a priest give him vodka and rant about witches stealing his seed--but Spyglass is so Middle-Englander that one's as scary as the other I guess!]. Cities: Archangel (with New Odense across the river), Azov, Baku, Kerch, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novorossiysk, Odessa, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol, Smolensk, Tiflis, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinoslav. [Just spitballing, but I'd guess it failed to expand its frontage past St Petersburg (Lyra's Oxford's 1810s "Baltic Wars") and napalmed Corea in treacherous alliance with Cathay in the 1950s-70s (to make a TTL Vietnam?).]
Western Tartary is partially within Muscovy, and extends over the Urals: it's a recruiting ground for the Imperial Guard among its "martial races"--Ostyaks, Samoyeds, and Voguls.
The Khan of Kazan* is de facto chosen by the Muscovite Emperor: he gives Muscovites full rights of movement and residence among the Bashkirs, Bolgars, Chuvash, Komi, Samoyeds, Tartars, and Votyaks. Cities: Kazan, Orenburg, Samara, Saratov, Simbirsk, Yekaterinburg.
The Khanate of Sibir* is particularly favored by Cossack settlers. Cities: Barnaul, Omsk, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Qashliq (Sibirsk in Muscovite), Semipalatinsk. Kholodnoye is probably in this country, along the Irtysh--though this would make the panserbjørne (gray flecks in Mongolia) be settling in the Altays (since Lake Baikal has seals) and not the Himalayas or Kunlun Shan.
Siberia is heavily settled and garrisoned by Muscovy at Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk, but has troublesome Buryats, Dolgans, Evenks, Evens, Koryaks, Oirats, Yakuts, and Yukaghirs.
The Pashalik of the Kazakhs (also known as Turkestan) includes the Kyrgyz, Naimans, Uzbegs, and Turkomans. Cities: Bukhara, Samarkand, Taskhent, Turkistan. Given its ruler's title (and its location) it'd be Persianized above everything, maybe maintained as a universal buffer by Moscow and Tehran, and even Lhasa, Beijing, and Urga.
The Ottoman Empire's vassals in name only are the Deylik of Algiers*, the Beylik of Barqa*, the Sultanate of Ægypt, the Pashalik of the Fezzan*, the Eyalet of Tripoli*, and the Beylik of Tunis*. Mesopotamia, around Mosul and Carrhae (probably feudalish and quite Kurdish), and the Sharifate of Mecca and Medina* are obligate allies of the Most Sublime Porte. If the world's supposed to be super-cruel maybe they had long new Crusades--let's say 17th c. Persia* benefits from Arab Babylonia's petroleum: maybe the Persosphere's been turning conservative as everyone gropes at the rock-oil and Riyadh tries to stir up the Sunnis (unless the Shiites got reincorporated somehow TTL). I'd guess there was a reformist, purifying, xenophobic swing against the "corrupt" cosmopolitan empires in the 20th century, but the Tartars are more of a threat to Europe than the Turks on their own.
Australia is uncolonized so I'd say the Mughal Empire or Hind* regrouped and still provides Scholars with intense fascination. South of it are (counter-clockwise) Portuguese Diu, Brytish Bombay, Portuguese Goa and Calicut, Bijapur and Mysore*, unified Kerala*, Portuguese Cochin, Coromandel*, Danish Tranquebar, Hollands Nagapatnam, French Pondicherry, Brytish Madras and Calcutta, the effective colony of Bengal* (Geneva and Copenhagen aren't gonna let the Brytish up the Ganges), Calingue*, French Chandernagore, and Danish Frederiksnagore. The Nicobar Islands are a difficult Danish holding between India and Burma.
The Hollands-dominated Kingdom of Ceylon* has French Trinquemalay and Hollands Colombo and Galle; it's playing France and Portugal against Holland. [Lyra's Oxford has Brytish officers in the Hindu Kush, so India's at least partially colonial, and unable to stop toffs from fishing in Afghanistan.]
Cathay, Corea, and Nippon are moderately industrialized: Confucianism has inspired Church and French Scholars as in OTL. The eastern Tartars--Buryats, Kalmyk, Khalkha, and Oirats--are only nominally subject to Cathay. The Church runs the international ports at Macau and Dejima.
Zomia has the Second Thibetan Empire* (where Mrs Coulter fled?), the Shan kingdoms*, Laos*, Ava and Pagan*, Siam* (cities: Ayutthaya, Chiang Mai, Luang Prabang, Sukhothai), Kampuchea* around Long Vek, and Brytish-aligned Annam* (Hannoy, Waloe, Huey, Ceygon).
Malaya is dominated by the Sultanates of Johor, Kedah, Pahang, and Selangor*, with Portuguese Malacca and Brytish Singapore on the Straits coast. The kingdoms of the Tagalog Islands* have the entrepôt of Maynila, the fulcrum of Castile's Cathay-New Spanish trade. Maybe the archipelago's Buddhist and pro-Cathay TTL?
Aceh* and the Sultanate of Java* are studded with Hollands trade ports: Banten, Batavia, and Makassar, and the whole Hollands Moluccas. Cities: Bandung, Bergota, Cerbon, Janggala, Kediri, Kota Gede, Trowulan. Timor is split between Holland and Portugal, maneuvering against nearby Bali*, Flores* and Sumba*.
The Austral Empire has suborned Maori New Holland and "protects" the islands of the Peaceable Ocean. Auster proper was settled by Brytish, Cathayans, Dutch, Javans, and Nipponese atop the black, russet-haired Autochthons, around the cities of Bab Kadikal [Sydney], Larrakia [Melbourne], and Ruytersborg [Brisbane]. I myself imagine it to be full of Austro-Bavarian Baroque works, like at Admont, St. Gall, St. Florian, or Melk. Only Hawaiki* has escaped its reach.
West Africa has Portuguese Guinea and the Green Cape, French St.-Louis, Muscovite Ft. Andrey, Futa Jalon* (west) and Futa Toro* (north), and the Pepper and Ivory Coasts. The Empire of Benin, or the Empire of the Niger, has the cities of Aboh, Abomey, Akkra, Andoni, Aro Chukwu, Bende, Benin City, Bobo-Dioulasso, Bonny, Calabar, Enugu, Gao, Ibadan, Ile-Ife, Jenne, Kumasi, Nembe, Okrika, Old Oyo, Onitsha, Segu, Sikasso, and Timbuktu. It's resisting Christianity coming from Danish Christiansborg, Prussian Großfriedrichsburg, Swedish Carlsborg, and Hollands Elmina, and Islam from the Hausa; its hated "Separated" troops and its profits from slaving have let it absorb Aro, Asante, Bamana, Dendi, Kong, and Oyo; it's also famed for its bronzes. The Biafran Islands are Parrot Island [Annobón], St. Anthony [Príncipe], St. Flora [Bioko], and St. Thomas.
The Sahara has several oases benefiting from trade with the Empire of Fez and Morocco*: Adrar, Agadez, Awdaghost, Bilma, Figuig, Laghouat, the Mzab, Tadmekka, Taghaza, Tawdani, Touggourt, Wadan, Walata, and Wargla. The Sahel states, west to east, are Hausa Sokoto* and Kano, Bornu, Bagirmi, Wadaï, and Darfur.*
The Coptic Kingdoms are Nubia* (the big one), the Abyssinian Empire* (in yellow), and Sennar* between them. Shilluk* is a heathen kingdom south of Nubia, and Oromia* likewise southeast of Abyssinia.
The Great Lakes States, or the States of the Mountains of the Moon, in order north to south, are Acholiland, Bunyoro, Buganda, Ankole, Ruanda, and Burundi.* Zanzibar is their natural trade partner.
Angola has Congo*, Loango* along the coast northwest of that, and Anziku* along the Congo River northeast of the Kingdom of Congo. Luanda is a Portuguese colony south of Congo, and the diamond-rich Skeleton Coast south of that.
The Electorate of Zimbabwe has absorbed the kingdoms of Kazembe, Kuba, Lozi, Luba, Lunda, Mutapa, and Rozwi. Cities: Kazembe, Zimbabwe, and Zumbo.
The Cape of Good Hope* is a Hollands colony at the southern tip; Hossie* and Bassoute* are French. Moçambique's* cities are Moçambique, Quelimane, and Sofala. Brytish Zukluland* [Amis] and Zimbabwean expansion spurred state formation between them--the Kingdom of the Limpopo*.
East Africa is dominated by the Kingdom of Zanzibar, or the Clove Islands, focused around the cities of Malindi, Mogadishu, Mombasa, Muscat, and Quiloa. It dominates the small sultanates of the Bahrein*. Yemen* dominates the Red Sea entrance and wants Soqotra to seize the frankincense trade. Madagascar, or the Island of the Moon, has French Ft. Dauphin, Portuguese Tametave, and Brytish Toliary, each jockeying for trade inland.
* = non-canonical country; I also made up a lot of city names
They seems to be the go to army guys, which made me really confused when they were guarding bolvangar, which from what I understand lies in Sweden.
all I could gather about Bolvangar is that it's a few days through forests from "Trollesund," which I assume as a stand-in for Tromsø: I guess Lapland (mortal and witch alike) was able to play off Oslo, Copenhagen, and Stockholm against each other and created a condominium, or maybe even sparked a war outside of Scandinavia
we'll get more clues when The Book of Dust comes out 2016 or 2036
yeah, a reader definitely needs geographical knowledge for this (though I did put everything in order by continent), so it turns into a big list; I just made deductions from the 17th-c. stuff (and Aldiss) that inspired Pullman (a lot's actually been published on him and his sources)
I've never been one for the "AH.com numbered map" but I hereby authorize thee to do what you want with my map--but unlike most SF/fantasy writers he isn't active in the "community": it's the only fantasy around today without the obligatory map, and he's very reticent regarding his conworld--he hasn't even promoted his promised 4th work
Lee Scoresby's a New Dane from the country of Texas--make of that what you will! But Once Upon a Time in the North has plenty of Anglophone Texans. New France is described as having good scientists and banning trepanning, but that's it. The Alamo was a fight between Danes and French TTL, so both groups had a strong presence in that area (which still retains its Caddo name and a chief port named for a Gálvez).
Alas, all we have to go on for world-building is the rich epic description of Northern Lights/Golden Compass, some bits and pieces from Subtle Knife, set in Cittŕgazze (based on Aldiss, Canaletto's paintings, and general Renaissance magic/alchemy), some scraps from and Amber Spyglass, which spends most of its time wasting ours, and a complete list of countries--some surprising--in Lyra's Oxford. But Pullman basically has abandoned this fantasy universe, as opposed to authors who gush forth multi-book cycles and handmade maps and supplements and atmospherics for their eager fanbase.